After 48 hours
As well as the treatment options described below, exercises and rehabilitation are very important part of long-term management.
After any injury it is usually necessary to avoid painful activities and to rest the affected part, and occasionally confinement to bed is justified. Rest is also recommended after an operation. It is usually continued until pain and swelling are negligible before loading the injured part.
It should be noted, however, that although rest and immobilisation are beneficial in the acute stage they have deleterious effects on all tissues in the long term. Early motion is essential.
After the initial 48 hours, heat treatment can be introduced to help the healing process. Heat may be started once the risk of haemorrhage is over, and aids healing by increasing the blood flow to the injured area.
Heat treatment provides pain relief, makes collagen fibres more extensible, and is of great importance as a means of both preventing and rehabilitating injuries.
Massage has been used in the world of sport from time immemorial. It is understood that massage increases the blood flow in muscles and thus relieved pain, stiffness, and tenderness.
Different types of support bandage are used depending on the degree of stability required. Included are elastic bandage, adhesive elastic bandage and self-adhesive elastic bandages.
Braces are increasingly used in sports. They are mostly used for the ankle and knee, but are increasingly used for the shoulder, elbow, hand, and wrist.
Tape is extensively used, especially for ankle ligament injuries. Taping is usually used for the protection of uninjured ankle ligaments, but it is also used after injury to prevent recurrence or worsening of the injury.
The object of taping is to support a weakened part of the body without limiting its function, by preventing movements that would stress the weakened area.